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sea wind farm

Platform supply vessel (often abbreviated as PSV) is a ship specially designed to supply offshore oil platforms. These ships range from 65 to 350 feet in length and accomplish a variety of tasks. The primary function for most of these vessels is transportation of goods and personnel to and from offshore oil platforms and other offshore structures.

Windfarm Power Explained

Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form, such as electricity, using wind turbines. At the end of 2007, worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was 94.1 gigawatts.Although wind currently produces about 1% of world-wide electricity use, it accounts for approximately 19% of electricity production in Denmark, 9% in Spain and Portugal, and 6% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland (2007 data). Globally, wind power generation increased more than fivefold between 2000 and 2007.

Most wind power is generated in the form of electricity. Large scale wind farms are connected to electrical grids. Individual turbines can provide electricity to isolated locations. In windmills, wind energy is used directly as mechanical energy for pumping water or grinding grain.

Wind energy is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions when it displaces fossil-fuel-derived electricity. The intermittency of wind seldom creates problems when using wind power to supply a low proportion of total demand, but it presents extra costs when wind is to be used for a large fraction of demand. However these costs even for quite large percentage penetrations are considered to be modest.


 

wind turbine

Wind generated electrical power explained

A wind turbine is a rotating machine which enables the conversion of kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy. If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such as a pump or grinding stones, the machine is usually called a windmill. If the mechanical energy is then converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator, wind turbine, wind power unit (WPU) or wind energy converter (WEC).

 


Installed windfarm capacity (MW) World Wide
Rank Nation
2005
2006
2007

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1
Germany
18,415
20,622
22,247
2
United States
9,149
11,603
16,818
3
Spain
10,028
11,615
15,145
4
India
4,430
6,270
8,000
5
China
1,260
2,604
6,050
6
Denmark (& Faeroe Islands)
3,136
3,140

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3,129
7
Italy
1,718
2,123
2,726
8
France
757
1,567
2,454
9
United Kingdom
1,332
1,963
2,389
10
Portugal
1,022
1,716
2,150
11
Canada
683
1,459
1,856
12
Netherlands
1,219
1,560
1,747
13
Japan
1,061
1,394
1,538
14
Austria
819
965
982
15
Greece
573
746
871
16
Australia
708
817
824
17
Ireland
496
745
805
18
Sweden
510
572
788
19
Norway
267
314
333
20
New Zealand
169
171
322
21
Egypt
145
230
310
22
Belgium

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167
193
287
23
Taiwan
104
188
282
24
Poland
83
153
276
25
Brazil
29
237
247
26

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South Korea
98
173
191
27
Turkey
20
51
146
28
Czech Republic
28
50
116
29
Morocco
64
124
114
30
Finland
82
86
110
31
Ukraine
77
86
89
32
Mexico
3
88
87
33
Costa Rica
71
74
74
34
Bulgaria
6
36
70
35
Iran
23
48
66
36
Hungary
18
61
65
Rest of Europe
129
163

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Rest of Americas
109
109
Rest of Asia
38
38
Rest of Africa & Middle East
31
31
Rest of Oceania
12
12
World total (MW)
59,091
74,223
93,849
 

THE FIRST UK WINDFARMS

The first windfarms in the UK were built onshore, and they currently generate more power than the offshore farms. A March 2006 report by the British Wind Energy Association forecast that onshore windfarms will be able to supply 6,000 MW peak, or on average nearly 5% of the national electricity requirement, by 2010. Despite this potential, gaining planning permission for onshore wind farms is proving difficult, with many schemes stalled in the planning system, and a high rate of refusal.[35]

In the year to 31 March 2005, onshore wind farms, according to Ofgem, produced 1,734 GW·h (an average of 198 MW) but this is expected to rise to 2,500 GW·h (an average of 285 MW) in the following year, so there is considerable scope for further growth (16,600 MW peak capacity had been installed in Germany by 2004.[36]

According to DTI figures onshore wind farms in the UK generated 769 GW·h in 2005, while offshore farms generated 204 GW·h. This compares to a total electricity consumption of 407,265 GW·h for the same year, meaning that the combined on and offshore contribution to UK electricity generation was less than 0.25%. In 2007 the planning permission problem was exacerbated by a shortage of spare parts for certain models of generator, which put some turbines out of action for over six months, triggering clauses in planning consents requiring removal of the non-functional turbines.[38]

Offshore UK wind farms

The UK has been estimated to have over a third of Europe's total offshore wind resource, which is equivalent to three times the electricity needs of the nation at current rates of electricity consumption.

The first developments in UK offshore wind power came about through the now discontinued Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), leading to two wind farms, Blyth Offshore and Gunfleet sands.[6] The NFFO was introduced as part of the Electricity Act 1989 and obliged UK electricity supply companies to secure specified amounts of electricity from non-fossil sources, which provided the initial spur for the commercial development of renewable energy in the UK.

The UK will require 7,500 offshore turbines by 2020 to meet EU targets[8]

 

In 1998 the British Wind Energy Association (BWEA) began discussions with the government to draw up formal procedures for negotiating with the Crown Estate, the owner of almost all the UK coastline out to distance of 12 nautical miles (22.2 km). The result was a set of guidelines published in 1999, and a huge increase in the number of applications submitted. Eighteen of the applications were granted permission to proceed in April 2001, in what has become known as round one of UK offshore wind development.

The first of the round one projects completed, and the first large scale offshore wind farm in the UK, North Hoyle, was commissioned in December 2003. The second, Scroby Sands, was completed one year later in December 2004, followed by the 90 MW Kentish Flats in 2005. The fourth, Barrow Offshore, with 30 turbines, finished construction in July 2006. Seven of the remaining projects have received consent from the planning authorities, while the remaining four are still awaiting consent, including the Shell Flat site off the coast of Lancashire.

 

Lessons learnt from round one, particularly the difficulty in getting planning consent for offshore wind farms, together with the increasing pressure to reduce CO2 emissions, prompted the department of trade and industry (DTI) to develop a strategic framework for the offshore wind industry. The result, known as Round 2, was announced in December 2003 with 15 projects with a combined capacity of 7.2 GW. By far the largest of these are the 1 GW London Array and the 1.2 GW Triton Knoll.[9]

 
WINDFARMS IN THE UK
Farm  
Completed   Power (MW)   Turbines   Notes  
Delabole[40]
1991 December
4.0
10
The UK's first commercial wind farm, owned by Good Energy

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Blood Hill[41]
1992 December
2.25
10
Located near Great Yarmouth
Coal Clough
1992 December
9.6
24
Located near Burnley
Hollin Hill [42]
1993 June
9.2
23
Harlock Hill[43]
1997 April
2.5
5
Part of the Baywind Co-Op. Upgraded in 2001
Haverigg[44]
1998 July
3/5
4
Part of the Baywind Co-Op.
Bears Downs [45][46]
2001 July
9.6
16
Crystal Rig
2004 May
50
20
Hadyard Hill
2006 March
120
52
Burton Wold [47]
2006 March
20
10
Caton Moor
2006 July
16
8
Recently upgraded
Westmill[48]
2008 April
6.5
5

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A co-op windfarm at Watchfield near Shrivenham, Oxfordshire
Scout Moor
2008 due July

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65
26
Between Bury, Rossendale and Rochdale
Walkway, High Swainston[49]
2008
21
7
Near Sedgefield
Butterwick Moor [50]
2009

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30
10
Close to the Walkway development, also near Sedgefield
Ardrossan[51]
Black Law Wind Farm
124
Whitelee Wind Farm
322
Dagenham
2004 April
3.6
2
First farm to be built in Greater London
Clyde Wind Farm
2011 (projected)
548
152
Approval given 21 July 2008. Completion expected in 2011
 
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